Nuremberg is a city in the German state of Bavaria located on the Pegnitz River and the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal. The city was founded around the turn of the 11th century and expanded rapidly due to its location on important trade routes. Nuremberg enjoyed a cultural flowering in the 15th and 16th centuries and was a center of art, printing, science and invention. Nuremberg rose as industrial power in the 19th century and was passed to Bavaria in 1806. After Adolph Hitler came to power in 1933 Nuremberg was turned into a national shrine of the Nazis who held their party congresses and rallies in the city from 1933 until 1938. In 1935 the Nuremberg Laws were passed, depriving German Jews of citizenship and civic rights. During the war the city was largely destroyed as large numbers of aircraft, tank and submarine engines were manufactured in Nuremberg, making it a prime target to the Allied bombing campaign. After the war the city was chosen as the seat of the international tribunal for war crimes.
City Walls and Towers of Nuremberg
A city wall was first constructed in the 12th century and was extended outwards twice as the population increased. The final city wall was built between the middle and the end of the 14th century. This wall had 128 towers of which about half are still standing. The most recent wall is still in good condition. Many of the towers were originally square but were rebuilt as round towers later to make them more effective against artillery fire. The 130 foot tall Spittler-Tower (aka Ludwigstor) is one of the four "thick towers" within the Nuremberg city walls. The Weisser Turm is one of the few remaining parts of the penultimate city fortifications. Built in the 13th century, it was part of the city's defense line for centuries but was no longer needed for that function when the city walls were expanded outwards, so a clock was added. It was damaged in Allied bombing raids during World War II. Today it serves as an entry for the city's subway system.
St. Lorenz Church and other churches
St. Lorenz Church was built between 1250 and 1360 on the foundations of an earlier romanesque basilica. It was expanded several times up until the second half of the 15th century. Dedicated to St. Lawrence, the church's late romanesque structure is similar to the older St. Sebaldus church to the north. It was heavily damaged during World War II and skillfully reconstructed in later years.
St. Jakob's Church is situated in Jakobsplatz, just a stone's throw away from the Elisabethkirche and the Weisser Turm. It was built in the 14th and 15th centuries and was once the official church of the Teutonic Order. As these photos show, the church was devastated in Allied bombing raids but has been extensively restored. Visible in the background of one of the St. Jakob's Church photos is the heavily damaged Elisabethkirche that was built in the second half of the 18th century. The distinctive dome of this Catholic church is unusual as it's the only large Classical-style building in Nuremberg.
Completed in 1865 the Deutschhaus Kaserne was used as a cavalry barracks. A former building on the site was associated with the Order of Teutonic Knights. During World War II the building was used as a local Gestapo headquarters and was heavily damaged by Allied bombing and was demolished afterwards. Today the Office of the Nuremberg Police Headquarters stands in its place.
Zeppelin Field of the Nazi Party Rally Grounds
The Nazi Party Rally Grounds in the southeast of Nuremberg was a nearly 7 square mile complex where the annual National Socialist congresses were held from 1933 until 1938. Many parts of the complex were never completed. The Zeppelin Field was designed by Hitler's architect, Albert Speer and included a 400 yard long grandstand. Immediately after the war the area was dubbed "Soldiers Field" and was used as a large recreation area. Pictured here, it's being used for a game of baseball. Cincinnati Reds great Ewell Blackwell pitched at Soldiers Field in the ETO World Series at Nuremberg. The pillars were taken down in the 1970s for safety reasons.